Ingredients and Health

Ingredients and Health

A. L-Tyrosine

Tyrosine is a non-essential amino acid that can be synthesized in the body from the essential amino acid Phenylalanine.
Addition of dietary supplements of Tyrosine has been proven to enhance Dopamine synthesis within the brain [1] and has shown to enhance short-term mood and creativity and increase physical and cognitive performance [2] [3] [4].
Tyrosine is commonly found in all proteins and food products and therefore is listed as FEMA GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) and (FEMA No. 3736).

According to the American Institute of Medicine, recommended daily intake of Tyrosine + Phenylalanine for adults is 33 mg / kg bodyweight (2310 mg for a 70kg person) [5], while daily intake from foods is estimated at 2790 mg [6].

[1] Acworth, I. N. et al. (1988). ” Tyrosine: effects on catecholamine release.” Brain Res. Bull., 21(3), 473-7.
[2] Jongkees, B.J. et al. (2015). Effect of tyrosine supplementation on clinical and healthy populations under stress or cognitive demands-A review. J. Psychiatr. Res., 70, 50-7.
[3] Meeusen, R., Decroix, L. (2018). Nutritional Supplements and the Brain. Int. J. Sport Nutr. Exerc. Metab.
[4] Colzato, L.S. et al. (2015). Food for creativity: tyrosine promotes deep thinking. Psychol. Res., 79(5), 709-14.
[5] Institute of Medicine (2005), “Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids.”, Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, Chapter 10, page 680.
[6] FAO/WHO/JECFA (2006), “Safety evaluation of certain food additives”, page 446.

B. Caffeine

Caffeine is the most common and widely consumed psychostimulant worldwide.
Studies show that Caffeine promotes Tyrosine Hydroxylase activation via cellular Ca2+ entry stimulation mechanism and that chronic Caffeine intake increases Tyrosine Hydroxylase expression in neurons [1] [2].

Moderate daily Caffeine intake for healthy adults is considered safe at up to 400mg (approx. 4 cups of coffee) [3].
Caffeine has a wide variety of effects on the Dopaminergic system [4], and is known to highly affects the metabolism within the central nervous system via the blockade of adenosine receptors, which modulate the neurotransmission of Glutamate, Serotonin, Acetylcholine and Dopamine [5] [6].

[1] McKenzie, S., Marley, P. D. (2002). ” Caffeine stimulates Ca(2+) entry through store-operated channels to activate tyrosine hydroxylase in bovine chromaffin cells.” Eur. J. Neurosci., 15(9), 1485-92.
[2] Datta, U. et al. (1996). ” Accumulation of tyrosine hydroxylase messenger RNA molecules in the rat mesencephalon by chronic caffeine treatment.” Neurosci. Lett., 220(2), 77-80.
[3] Temple J. L. (2017). “The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review” Front. Psychiatry, 8:80.
[4] Voiculescu, M. et al. (2014). Molecular and pharmacodynamic interactions between caffeine and dopaminergic system. J. Med. Life, 4, 30-8.
[5] Fisone, G. et al. (2004). Caffeine as a psychomotor stimulant: mechanism of action. Cell. Mol. Life Sci., 61(7-8), 857-72.
[6] Nehlig, A. et al. (1992). Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects. Brain Re. Brain Res. Rev., 17(2), 139-70.